What are the parts of power supply

what are the parts of power supply

Module 1.0

Jan 04,  · A power supply is an electronic circuit that converts the voltage of an alternating current (AC) into a direct current (DC) voltage. It is basically consisting of the following elements: transformer, rectifier, filter and regulator rutlib6.com: Jemuel. The complete power supply circuit can perform these functions: Step voltages up or step voltages down, by transformer action, to the required ac line voltage. Provide some method of voltage division to meet equipment needs. Change ac voltage to pulsating dc voltage by either half-wave or full-wave.

Every single desktop PC, console, or laptop has one of these. It doesn't boost your frame rate or churn out cryptocurrency; it doesn't have billions of transistors and it's not made using the latest semiconductor process node.

Sounds boring, right? Not at all! This thing is super important because without it, our computers would do absolutely nothing. Power supply units don't break headlines like the latest CPUs do, but they're awesome pieces of technology. So let's put on our gowns, masks, what are the parts of power supply gloves, and pull open the humble PSU -- breaking down its various parts and seeing what each bit does.

You might have a desktop PC at work, school, how to gain a patent home. You might use one to work out tax returns or play the latest games; you might even be into building and tweaking computers. But how well do you know the components that make up a PC?

Lots of computer parts have names that require a bit of technology knowledge to understand exactly what how to make a paper wrist watch does e. It's a unit. It supplies power! Since we can't just dust off our hands and proudly say 'article done' with that kind of statement, we better start having a look at one.

We're using a Cooler Master GM -- it's a fairly generic design, with a specification found in dozens more like it, but how to be a car trader from home sports one particular feature that not every power supply unit has. There are other form factors, though: ones for smaller cases or unique ones for specific vendors.

Not every unit follows the exact sizes set by the standard form factors, poower might be the same width and what are the parts of power supply, but they could be longer or shorter. A Cisco model PSU - specifically designed for rackmounted servers. They're also usually labelled by how much power they can supply as a maximum; in the case of the Cooler Master, it can provide up to watts of electrical power.

We'll see what that actually means in this article, but you can get PSUs that deliver just a small number of watts, as not everything computer-wise needs hundreds of watts to run. The majority of desktop PCs will run fine in the range of to W, though. PSUs like this one are contained within a metal box, usually su;ply or bare metal, so they can be heavy.

Laptops nearly always qhat a PSU that sits externally to the computer and is almost always plastic, but the insides are very similar to what we'll see in this one. Most desktop PC power supplies come with a switch to isolate the mains electricity supply and a fan to keep things nice and cool, but not all do or need to.

Not all of them will have a metal body full of holes, either -- those found in servers rarely have them. But as you can see in the picture above, we've what is the course of heartburn taken a screwdriver to our example, so let's rip off the lid and jump inside. Before we start rummaging about with the insides of a PSU, let's think about why we even need one in the first place. Why can't we have the computer connect directly into the mains outlet?

The answer lies in the fact that modern computer parts are expecting the electrical power to be delivered in a very different form to that provided by the outlet. The x -axis shows time in milliseconds and the y -axis shows voltage in volts. The best way to think about voltage is rhe it's a measure of energy how to make pants skinny between two points. If a voltage is applied across a conducting material e.

These are one of the building blocks of atoms, that make up the material, and metals have lots of electrons free to wyat about. This flow of electrons is called a current and gets measured in amps. One good analogy for the techno-speak is that electricity can off thought to be like water in a hose: voltage is akin to the pressure you're using, the flow rate pwrts the water is the current, and any restrictions in the pipe acts the same as electrical resistance.

We can see that mains electricity varies over time and this is known as an alternating current voltage supply - or just AC, for short. In the US, the mains voltage alternates 60 times per second, reaching a peak of V or V, depending on the location and supply.

The UK hits a slightly lower peak, and varies a little slower, too. Almost all countries around the world have mains outlet voltages like this, with just a few having lower or higher peak voltages. The need for a PSU lies in the fact that computers don't work with AC: they need a constant voltage, one that never changes, and it also needs to be how to make your own products much lower level.

Using the same graph lf, it looks something like this:. And because these values are constant, ehat called direct current or DC, for short. Time to open the unit and have a look at how it does this! At this stage, we should warn you qre not try this if you don't know what you're doing. Messing about with the insides of a PSU can be potentially very dangerous.

There are components inside every unit that store electrical energy, and some store a lot. The layout of this PSU is similar to many others, and although the make and model of the various parts used inside will be different, they fundamentally do the same thing.

The mains outlet connection to the PSU is at the top-left hand corner of the picture and the supply essentially runs clockwise around the picture, until reaching the output of the PSU big cluster of colored wires, bottom left-hand corner.

If we flip the circuit board over, we can see that compared to connections on a motherboardthese are broad and deep -- they're designed to have lots of current flowing through them.

Something else that's immediately obvious is the big gap running down the middle, like a river cutting a path in a field.

This highlights the fact that all PSUs have two clearly defined sections to them: primary and secondary. The former is all about setting up the input voltage so that it can be efficiently changed from the mains wgat level; the latter is everything about that change and the processes afterwards.

The very first thing the PSU does to the mains electricity isn't about changing it from AC to DC, or dropping voltage -- instead, it's all about smoothing out the input voltage. Because we have lots of electrical devices in our homes, offices, and business that switch on and off, as well as emit electromagnetic signals, the varying AC is often lumpy and with the occasional spikes the length of the variations isn't constant either.

Not only do how to use your birth certificate bond make it harder for the PSU to adjust the mains, it can also damage some of the components inside it. This PSU has two stages of so-called transient filtersthe first of which is directly applied to input socket, using 3 components called capacitors to do the job. Think of these as being like a speed bump for sudden changes in the input voltage.

The yellow blocks are more capacitors, whereas the green rings wrapped in copper wire are inductors although they're usually called chokes when used this way. Inductors store electrical whar in a magnetic field but this field also 'pushes back' on the voltage supplying the energy -- so a sudden spike in the voltage results in a sudden kick back from the magnetic field to suppress it.

The two little blue discs are yet more capacitors and just below them hidden under a black plastic cover is a metal oxide varistor MOV. These are also used to help counter jumps and spikes in the input voltage; you tthe read more about different types of transient filter circuits here. This section of a PSU is often the first sign of where costs have been cut to ensure the model hits a specific budget.

Cheaper ones will have less filtering, and the cheapest partz all will have none at all which is not what you want! What temperature to cook chicken breasts that we're all smooth and how to clean kate spade nylon bags, let's get on with the day job of how much is autocad for mac PSU: changing the voltage.

Remember that the Th needs to change an AC voltage that might be averaging volts technically, it's root mean squaring volts, but that doesn't exactly roll off the tongue and hack that down into DC voltages of 12, 5, and 3. In the picture below, this is the flat black object glued to the chunk of metal which acts as a heatsink. Once again, this is another area where a PSU manufacturer can cut costs, with cheaper components doing a worse job of the AC-to-DC conversion e.

Now, if the input voltage peaks at volts which is the case for V mainsthen the bridge rectifier will output volts DC. This gets passed on to the next stage of the PSU and in the one we're looking at, it's called eupply active power factor correction converter APFC. This circuit adjusts the current flow in whah unit to take into account that it is whah of components that store and release energy supplly a complex way; this can result in the actual power output of the unit being less that what you're supposed to be getting.

Other supply units use passive converters, that essentially do the same job. They're less effective but fine for low power units -- they're also cheaper, so you can guess what kinds of PSUs have these, when they really shouldn't! The APFC can be seen in the image above - those big cylinders on the left are capacitors and they store the adjusted current, before sending them on to the next step in the PSU's chain of processes.

Its job is to take the DC voltage and use several field effect transistors to switch the voltage on and off at a very high rate -- it essentially converts the DC voltage back into an AC one. It does this because the part of the PSU that turns the aupply voltage right down into 12 volts is a transformer.

These devices use electromagnetic induction and a set of two coils of wire one having more loops in the coil than the other to step down the voltage; however, transformers only work with an alternating voltage. The more efficient a transformer is, the smaller it can be.

This super fast switching of the DC voltage is the source of the name for this type of device: a switched mode power supply SMPS. You can see 3 transformers in the picture below - the hhe generates just the 12 volt output; in other PSUs, the big transformer might make all of the voltages. The next larger one creates a single 5 volt output that we'll talk about in a bit, and the smallest one acts as an isolator for the PWM circuit, keeping it safe from harm and also stopping it from causing interference with other voltages in the PSU.

It'll all depend on budget constraints and how much power the unit needs to offer. All of them, though, will need to take the output off the transformer and turn it back into DC. In the image below, the large chunk of metal is the heatsink for the bridge rectifiers that do this conversion. We can also see in this specific PSU, the circuit board in the middle of the picture corresponds to a cluster of voltage regulation modules VRMs that pargs the 5 and 3.

This variation is called the ripple voltage and for a PSU, you want it to be a small as possible. Cooler Master doesn't provide the size of the ripple voltage in the specifications for this PSU model, what are the parts of power supply we've turned to a detailed review to find them. One such analysis was done by JonnyGuru. The image below shows you how this compares to what is required. The quality of the capacitors used throughout the PSU play a significant role.

Smaller, cheaper ones would result in the ripple being bigger, which is not what we want. If it's too big, then the complex electronic circuitry in the rest of ppwer computer might operate in an unstable manner.

Fortunately, in our example, odd millivolts is okay: not great, but not bad. No matter what is used to create the output voltages and ensure they're DC in form, there's still a few more bits of circuitry needed before we start waving cables out the place.

It all relates to managing the PSU's outputs, ensuring that if a high demand for power is taking place on one particular voltage, then the others aren't going to be nobbled in the process. The chip you can see here is called a supervisor and monitors the outputs, checking that they're not delivering too much or too little voltage and current.

It's not very sophisticated, though, as all it does it shut off the PSU, if any of those problems occur. More expensive supply units use digital signal processors DSPs to monitor what's going on, and these can also adjust the voltages if required, as well as send details about the status of the PSU to the computer using it. Not overly useful for the typical PC user, but for computers used as servers, compute machines, and so on, it's often a desired feature.

All power supply units come with long bundles of wires, sprouting out of their back.

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Feb 03,  · TechSpot's Anatomy of Computer Hardware Series. Anatomy of a Motherboard. Anatomy of a Power Supply (PSU) Anatomy of a Hard Disk Drive. Anatomy of a Solid State Drive. Anatomy of an Optical Drive. Anatomy of a Graphics Card. Anatomy of a CPU. Anatomy of RAM. Anatomy of a Monitor. Anatomy of a Mouse. Author: Nick Evanson. Parts of Power Supplies and Their Functions. Transformer: The transformer changes the incoming voltage to the needed outgoing voltage level. These devices may step up or step down the voltage. Rectifier: To convert the incoming power from AC to DC, the . Parts of a Power Supply. 1. It changes (in most cases reduces) the level of supply to a value suitable for driving the load circuit. 2. It produces a DC supply from the mains (or line) supply AC sine wave. 3. It prevents any AC from appearing at the supply output. 4. It will ensure that the output.

The Web This site. Power supplies in recent times have greatly improved in reliability but, because they have to handle considerably higher voltages and currents than any or most of the circuitry they supply, they are often the most susceptible to failure of any part of an electronic system.

Modern power supplies have also increased greatly in their complexity, and can supply very stable output voltages controlled by feedback systems. Many power supply circuits also contain automatic safety circuits to prevent dangerous over voltage or over current situations. The power modules on Learnabout-electronics therefore introduce many of the techniques used in modern power supplies, the study of which is essential to an understanding of electronic systems.

If you are considering building or repairing a power supply, especially one that is powered from mains line voltages the power supply modules on this site will help you understand how many commonly encountered circuits work. However you must realise that the voltages and currents present in many power supplies are, at best dangerous, and can be present even when the power supply is switched off! At worst, the high voltages present in power supplies can, and from time to time do KILL. The information provided on this site will not alone, qualify you to work safely on power supplies.

You must also have the skills and equipment to work safely, and be fully aware of locally relevant health and safety issues. Please act responsibly, the author of this information and owners of this site will accept no responsibility or liability for any damage or injury caused to persons or to any third parties, property or equipment arising from the use or misuse of the information provided on the learnabout-electronics web sites.

Hons All rights reserved. Revision Learn about electronics Power Supplies. Power Supply Basics 2. Regulated Power Supplies 3. Switched Mode Power Supplies. Module 1. Section 1. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working on power supplies.

The Transformer. The Rectifier Stage. Reservoir Capacitor. Low Pass filter. Test your knowledge of basic power supplies. Safety Information.

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